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Eur J Biochem. 2000 Aug;267(16):4928-44.

Regulation of protein function by S-glutathiolation in response to oxidative and nitrosative stress.

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Department of Estructura y Función de Proteínas, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, Instituto Reina Sofía de Investigaciones Nefrológicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.


Protein S-glutathiolation, the reversible covalent addition of glutathione to cysteine residues on target proteins, is emerging as a candidate mechanism by which both changes in the intracellular redox state and the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may be transduced into a functional response. This review will provide an introduction to the concepts of oxidative and nitrosative stress and outline the molecular mechanisms of protein regulation by oxidative and nitrosative thiol-group modifications. Special attention will be paid to recently published work supporting a role for S-glutathiolation in stress signalling pathways and in the adaptive cellular response to oxidative and nitrosative stress. Finally, novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of S-glutathiolation as well as methodological problems related to the interpretation of the biological relevance of this post-translational protein modification will be discussed.

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