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Pharm Sci Technolo Today. 2000 Aug;3(8):273-281.

Intranasal vaccines: forthcoming challenges.

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UPR 9021 CNRS, Immunochimie des Peptides et des Virus, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue René Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France.


The mucosal epithelium of the upper respiratory tract constitutes an effective physical barrier to many pathogens. Its mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue is of particular importance for the protection and integrity of mucosal surfaces and the body's interior. Understanding the factors that influence the induction and regulation of mucosal immune responses will facilitate the design of vaccines capable of eliciting the appropriate type of protective immune response.


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