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J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 20;275(42):32816-21.

Distinct polyphosphoinositide binding selectivities for pleckstrin homology domains of GRP1-like proteins based on diglycine versus triglycine motifs.

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  • 1Program in Molecular Medicine and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA.


GRP1 and the related proteins ARNO and cytohesin-1 are ARF exchange factors that contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain thought to target these proteins to cell membranes through binding polyphosphoinositides. Here we show the PH domains of all three proteins exhibit relatively high affinity for dioctanoyl phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)), with K(D) values of 0.05, 1.6 and 1.0 micrometer for GRP1, ARNO, and cytohesin-1, respectively. However, the GRP1 PH domain was unique among these proteins in its striking selectivity for PtdIns(3,4, 5)P(3) versus phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)), for which it exhibits about 650-fold lower apparent affinity. Addition of a glycine to the Gly(274)-Gly(275) motif in GRP1 greatly increased its binding affinity for PtdIns(4,5)P(2) with little effect on its binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), while deletion of a single glycine in the corresponding triglycine motif of the ARNO PH domain markedly reduced its binding affinity for PtdIns(4,5)P(2) but not for PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3). In intact cells, the hemagglutinin epitope-tagged PH domain of GRP1 was recruited to ruffles in the cell surface in response to insulin, as were full-length GRP1 and cytohesin-1, but the PH domain of cytohesin-1 was not. These data indicate that the unique diglycine motif in the GRP1 PH domain, as opposed to the triglycine in ARNO and cytohesin-1, directs its remarkable PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) binding selectivity.

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