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Exp Cell Res. 2000 Aug 1;258(2):403-8.

Calcium and calmodulin are essential for Ras-GRF1-mediated activation of the Ras pathway by lysophosphatidic acid.

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Department of General Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Milan, Via Celoria, 26, Milan, 20133, Italy.


The exchange factor Ras-GRF1, also called CDC25Mm, couples calcium signaling and G-protein-coupled receptors to Ras and downstream effectors. Here we show that when expressed in different cell lines Ras-GRF1 strongly enhances the level of active Ras (Ras-GTP) and the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Moreover, in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts it potentiates the effect of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on Ras protein and MAPK activity. Calmodulin and cytosolic free calcium are essential for Ras and MAPK activation induced by LPA and mediated by Ras-GRF1, as shown by the finding that BAPTA-AM, an intracellular calcium chelator, and calmodulin inhibitors completely abolished this effect. This report demonstrates the relevance of calmodulin in addition to calcium for the response of Ras-GRF1 to LPA.

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