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J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000 Jul;31(1):41-6.

Deep sedation with inhaled sevoflurane for pediatric outpatient gastrointestinal endoscopy.

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Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Arizona 85006, USA.



Sevoflurane is an inhaled anesthetic agent with ideal properties for achieving deep sedation during pediatric outpatient gastrointestinal endoscopy. This is a comparison of experience with this gas and other sedation methods used in the authors' hospital.


Retrospective chart review and statistical analysis of data from children receiving inhaled sevoflurane administered by an anesthesiologist through laryngeal insufflation, intravenous propofol, or intravenous midazolam-fentanyl-ketamine in any combination to achieve deep sedation for outpatient gastrointestinal endoscopy. Anesthesia was administered in a dedicated procedure room. The intravenous drugs were administered by pediatric intensivists in the intensive care unit. The same endoscopist performed all the procedures.


A total of 248 procedures were reviewed (midazolam-fentanyl-ketamine 67, propofol 114, and sevoflurane 67). All patients were adequately sedated with sevoflurane, and no intravenous access was required. Time (in minutes) to awakening (midazolam-fentanyl-ketamine 47.15, propofol 36.12, sevoflurane 5.70), discharge (midazolam-fentanyl-ketamine 141.99, propofol 91.20, sevoflurane 53.34), and total time, including induction and procedure (midazolam-fentanyl-ketamine 163.97, propofol 119.40, sevoflurane 73.93), were significantly lower for sevoflurane (P < 0.01). The complication rate for sevoflurane (4.5%) was lower (P < 0.05) than for midazolam-fentanyl-ketamine (13.4%) and for propofol (17.5%). Charges for room use and medications were also lower for sevoflurane (P < 0.01). The total charges for sedation (U.S.$) were comparable for sevoflurane (688.10) and propofol (723.08) but were higher for midazolam-fentanyl-ketamine (855.10, P < 0.01).


Deep sedation with inhaled sevoflurane for pediatric outpatient gastrointestinal endoscopy is as safe as conventional sedation techniques, potentially less expensive, increases endoscopy unit productivity, and eliminates the inconvenience associated with obtaining intravenous access in children.

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