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J Urol. 2000 Aug;164(2):288-95.

The orthotopic Kock ileal neobladder: functional results, urodynamic features, complications and survival in 166 men.

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  • 1Department of Urology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.



We report our experience with 166 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and orthotopic bladder substitution with the ileal Kock neobladder between February 1990 and January 1999.


We classified complications as early (3 months or less postoperatively) and late. Continence was assessed by patient interview, the need to use protective devices and provocative incontinence testing. Neobladder function was evaluated by uroflowmetry, post-void residual urine volume measurement and enterocystometry, and renal function was assessed by 51creatinine ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance.


There were no perioperative deaths. However, 52 early complications developed in 39 patients (23.5%) and 73 late complications in 62 (37.4%). The rate of early and late complications associated with the urinary tract was 11.5% and 23.5% with abdominal reoperation rates of 1.8% and 2.4%, respectively, due to these complications. At 3 and 5 years the risk of stone formation on the metallic staples was 18% and 34%, and the risk of B12 deficiency was 30% and 33%, respectively. One patient (0.6%) underwent reoperation for ureteral anastomotic stricture. Anterior urethral stricture in 5 cases (3%) was caused by recurrence in 1 and urethral anastomotic stricture in 1 also resulted from recurrent disease. Daytime continence was reported by 97% and 100% of our patients at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Provocative incontinence testing confirmed this level of daytime continence. Overall 75% of patients reported nighttime continence at 1 year and 94% at 5 years. The need for a nighttime protective device decreased with time. At 1 versus 3 years 39.8% versus 45.9% of patients used no protection, 29.7% versus 39.2% used a sanitary pad and 30.5% versus 14.9% used a condom device. Enterocystometric capacity and subtracted maximum reservoir pressure remained remarkably uniform at 456 versus 411 ml. and 47 versus 50 cm. water 6 months and 5 years postoperatively, respectively. Nevertheless, median post-void residual urine volume increased from 20 ml. at 6 months to 40 ml. at 5 years with an increased prevalence of patients requiring intermittent catheterization due to post-void residual urine greater than 100 ml. from 16% at 6 months to 44% at 5 years. 51Creatinine ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance remained unchanged. There was a substantial 5-year survival advantage for the subpopulation with stage pT3a or less, pN0 tumors (94% versus 51%, p <0.001).


Radical cystectomy and orthotopic bladder substitution with the Kock ileal neobladder may be performed with an acceptable complication rate and good functional results. The probability of survival was considerably higher for patients with tumor confined to the bladder. Consequently we believe that early aggressive treatment should be considered in those with invasive disease, and reconstruction with orthotopic bladder substitution may encourage patients to accept radical surgery.

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