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J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 1996 Oct;1(4):373-80.

Complex role of tumor cell transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta s on breast carcinoma progression.

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Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Vanderbilt Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.


Growth inhibition by the TGF-beta s has been extensively studied in both normal and transformed mammary epithelial cells. It has been proposed that loss of autocrine TGF-beta mediated growth regulation is a critical event in breast tumorigenesis and several lines of in vitro and in vivo data support this hypothesis. However, a positive association between the expression of TGF-beta s by tumor cells and the progression or maintenance of breast cancinoma cells has been observed in many studies in in vivo tumor models. Possible mechanisms for these growth enhancing effects of TGF-beta include immunosuppression mediated by tumor TGF-beta s, enhanced angiogenesis, increased peritumoral stroma formation, and cell adhesion. The net effect of tumor cell TGF-beta on the biology of breast carcinogenesis would depend on the balance between autocrine growth inhibition of mammary epithelial cells and these growth enhancing effects.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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