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Increased phototoxicity of hydrochlorothiazide by photodegradation.

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Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju, Kyungnam, Republic of Korea.


The photodegradation products of hydrochlorothiazide produced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated for their phototoxicity utilizing the photohemolysis and Candida albicans tests. Hydrochlorothiazide was irradiated for 30, 60, 90 and 120 min with a 250 W xenon arc lamp using a WG295 cut-off filter. Irradiation of hydrochlorothiazide resulted in the gradual decrease of all three absorption bands (225, 270 and 320 nm), the blue shift of the 225 nm band, and the appearance of a new band around 290 nm. Since previous results demonstrated that photosubstitution of chloride could occur, the main product of this photolysis most likely is ethoxyhydrochlorothiazide. The photohemolysis test revealed a significant increase in photohemolysis observed in the photodegradation products produced after 60, 90 and 120 min of UV irradiation. This increase in hemolysis value directly correlated with the UV-irradiation time. However, there was no significant phototoxic killing of yeast in the Candida albicans test. This suggests photodegradation products of hydrochlorothiazide may play an important role in phototoxicity by acting on the cell membrane, but not on DNA. Considering the high in vitro phototoxicity observed in bendroflumethiazide and the data presented here, substitution of chloride seems to be responsible for the increased phototoxicity of hydrochlorothiazide.

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