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Cytokine. 2000 Jul;12(7):1007-16.

TNF-alpha is a potent inducer for IFN-inducible protein-10 in hepatocytes and unaffected by GM-CSF in vivo, in contrast to IL-1beta and IFN-gamma.

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Department of Molecular Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.


We have recently shown that IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), a member of the CXC chemokine family, is induced in hepatocytes surrounded by infiltrative mononuclear cells in human livers with chronic hepatitis. Hence, we examined the kinds of stimuli that can induce IP-10 expression in hepatocytes in vivo. While the liver expressed three chemokine genes (IP-10, JE/MCP-1, KC/GRO) in a tissue-specific fashion following systemic treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines, IP-10 mRNA expression showed the most marked liver-specificity. Pretreatment with GM-CSF selectively inhibited IL-1beta, but not TNF-alpha-induced IP-10 mRNA expression. In situ hybridization analysis in the liver and Northern hybridization analysis in isolated liver cell fractions from rodents treated with pro-inflammatory cytokines revealed cellular sources of chemokine expression. IP-10 mRNA expression in hepatocytes was induced by i.v. administration of TNF-alpha, and to a much lesser extent in response to IL-1beta and IFN-gamma, whereas Kupffer cells and endothelial cells expressed IP-10 mRNA equivalently in response to these three stimuli. On the other hand, JE/MCP-1 mRNA expression was detected only in non-parenchymal cells in response to TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, but not in response to IFN-gamma. KC/GRO mRNA expression was also induced mainly in sinusoidal cells by treatment with TNF-alpha or IL-1beta, although it was detected to a lesser extent in hepatocytes. Our results demonstrated that chemokine induction is stimulus-, tissue- and cell type-specific and that IP-10 (but not MCP-1) is inducible in hepatocytes by TNF-alpha most potently, even in the presence of GM-CSF, suggesting the specific role of TNF-alpha-induced IP-10 on intralobular mononuclear infiltration in chronic hepatitis.

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