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Anesth Analg. 2000 Jul;91(1):92-6.

Fast-tracking after immersion lithotripsy: general anesthesia versus monitored anesthesia care.

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Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75235-9068, USA.


Both monitored anesthesia care (MAC) and general anesthesia (GA) offer advantages over epidural anesthesia for immersion lithotripsy. We compared propofol-based MAC and desflurane-based GA techniques for outpatient lithotripsy. After receiving midazolam 2 mg IV, 100 subjects were randomly assigned to one of two anesthetic treatment groups. In the MAC group, propofol 50-100 microg. kg(-1). min(-1) IV was titrated to maintain an observer's assessment of alertness/sedation score of 2-3 (5 = awake/alert to 1 = asleep). Remifentanil 0.05 min(-1) IV supplemented with 0.125 microg/kg IV boluses, was administered for pain control. In the GA group, anesthesia was induced with propofol 1.5 mg/kg IV and remifentanil 0.125 microg/kg IV and maintained with desflurane (2%-4% inspired) and nitrous oxide (60%). Tachypnea (respiratory rate >20 breaths/min) was treated with remifentanil 0.125 microg/kg IV boluses. In the GA group, droperidol (0.625 mg IV) was administered as a prophylactic antiemetic. Recovery times and postoperative side effects were assessed up to 24 h after the procedure. Compared with MAC, the use of GA reduced the opioid requirement and decreased movements and episodes of desaturation (<90%) during the procedure. Although the GA group took longer to return to an observer's assessment of alertness/sedation score of 5, discharge times were similar in both groups. We conclude that GA can provide better conditions for outpatient immersion lithotripsy than MAC sedation without delaying discharge.


A desflurane-based general anesthetic technique using the cuffed oropharyngeal airway device was found to be a highly acceptable alternative to propofol-based monitored anesthesia care sedation for outpatient immersion lithotripsy.

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