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Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Jul;20(14):5235-47.

Polarized growth controls cell shape and bipolar bud site selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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  • 1Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8103, USA.


We examined the relationship between polarized growth and division site selection, two fundamental processes important for proper development of eukaryotes. Diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exhibit an ellipsoidal shape and a specific division pattern (a bipolar budding pattern). We found that the polarity genes SPA2, PEA2, BUD6, and BNI1 participate in a crucial step of bud morphogenesis, apical growth. Deleting these genes results in round cells and diminishes bud elongation in mutants that exhibit pronounced apical growth. Examination of distribution of the polarized secretion marker Sec4 demonstrates that spa2Delta, pea2Delta, bud6Delta, and bni1Delta mutants fail to concentrate Sec4 at the bud tip during apical growth and at the division site during repolarization just prior to cytokinesis. Moreover, cell surface expansion is not confined to the distal tip of the bud in these mutants. In addition, we found that the p21-activated kinase homologue Ste20 is also important for both apical growth and bipolar bud site selection. We further examined how the duration of polarized growth affects bipolar bud site selection by using mutations in cell cycle regulators that control the timing of growth phases. The grr1Delta mutation enhances apical growth by stabilizing G(1) cyclins and increases the distal-pole budding in diploids. Prolonging polarized growth phases by disrupting the G(2)/M cyclin gene CLB2 enhances the accuracy of bud site selection in wild-type, spa2Delta, and ste20Delta cells, whereas shortening the polarized growth phases by deleting SWE1 decreases the fidelity of bipolar budding. This study reports the identification of components required for apical growth and demonstrates the critical role of polarized growth in bipolar bud site selection. We propose that apical growth and repolarization at the site of cytokinesis are crucial for establishing spatial cues used by diploid yeast cells to position division planes.

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