Send to

Choose Destination
Ann Periodontol. 1999 Dec;4(1):7-19.

Dental plaque-induced gingival diseases.

Author information

Ohio State University School of Dentistry, Columbus, USA.


Gingival diseases are a diverse family of complex and distinct pathological entities found within the gingiva that are the result of a variety of etiologies. There are several clinical characteristics common to all gingival diseases and these features include clinical signs of inflammation, signs and symptoms that are confined to the gingiva, reversibility of the disease by removing the etiology, the presence of bacterial laden plaque to initiate and/or exacerbate the severity of the disease and a possible role as a precursor for attachment loss around teeth. Defining and classifying gingival diseases has not been an easy task. The tools and methods to identify gingival diseases have varied depending on the criteria used by epidemiologists, researchers, or the practicing clinician. The classification of gingival disease in this review relied upon experimental and/or epidemiological human studies that accurately and reliably assessed an underlying functional derangement that was localized to the gingiva and was reported in a peer-reviewed journal. The classification of gingival diseases that depends on dental plaque to initiate the disease process(es) has been categorized into two groups. The two categories of plaque-induced gingival diseases are those affected by local factors and those that are affected by local factors and modified by specific systemic factors found in the host. In this review, the clinical characteristics of gingival disease associated with plaque, endogenous hormone fluctuations, drugs, systemic diseases, and malnutrition were investigated.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center