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Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000 Jun;37(2):93-8.

In vitro activity of selected cephalosporins and erythromycin against staphylococci and pneumococci isolated at 38 North American medical centers participating in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-1998.

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1
University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA. ronald-jones@uiowa.edu

Abstract

The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program employs a worldwide network of hospitals to monitor the predominant bacterial and fungal pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns associated with nosocomial and community-acquired bloodstream, respiratory tract, wound, and urinary tract infections. The purpose of this analysis of SENTRY data is to extract information on the current North American susceptibility patterns of pneumococci and oxacillin-susceptible staphylococci from the comprehensive SENTRY program database. Clinical isolates were provided by 30 centers in the United States (grouped into five regions) and eight centers in Canada. Susceptibility testing was performed at a central reference laboratory using broth microdilution methods and interpretive criteria specified by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Of 34 530 North American bacterial isolates tested during 1997 and 1998, 565 (1.6%) were oxacillin-susceptible, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Cefazolin, cefepime, and ceftriaxone all had excellent activity against these CoNS (97.3%-99. 3% susceptible), and 90.4% were susceptible to ceftazidime. A total of 4404 isolates (12.8%) were oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Overall, 98.9% to 99.2% were susceptible to cefazolin, cefepime, and ceftriaxone; ceftazidime did not have acceptable activity against these S. aureus. Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 1665 (4.8%) of North American SENTRY isolates. A total of 1212 isolates (72.8%) were fully susceptible to penicillin (MIC </= 0.06 microg/ml), 250 (15%) were penicillin intermediate (MIC 0.12-1 microg/ml), and 203 (12.2%) were penicillin resistant (MIC >/= 2 microg/ml). The rate of penicillin susceptibility was highest in Canada, and lowest in the South Central and South East regions of the United States. Cefepime, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, and erythromycin all demonstrated excellent efficacy (94%-99.8% susceptibility) against fully penicillin-susceptible isolates of S. pneumoniae. Among pneumococci with intermediate penicillin resistance, 88% were susceptible to cefepime, 92% to cefotaxime, and only 14% to ceftazidime. None of the antimicrobial agents in this analysis demonstrated adequate activity against fully penicillin-resistant pneumococci. In summary, the fourth-generation cephalosporin, cefepime, demonstrated consistently excellent efficacy against oxacillin-susceptible staphylococci and most pneumococci, and remains an appropriate choice for empiric therapy of serious infections.

PMID:
10863103
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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