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Neuroimmunomodulation. 2000;8(1):25-30.

Somatostatin and substance P induced in vivo by lipopolysaccharide and in peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or interferon-gamma have differential effects on murine cytokine production.

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College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejeon, Korea.


We have investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces substance P (SP) and somatostatin (SOM) in popliteal lymph nodes in vivo and whether macrophages are a source of SP and SOM in vitro. We have also investigated the effect of SP and SOM treatment on the production of cytokines. SP reached a maximum 3 days after injection of LPS (100 microg/footpad) and then declined. SOM expression after LPS injection reached a maximum at 5-7 days. Stimulation of thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages with LPS (20 microg/ml), recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma, 100 U/ml), and LPS plus rIFN-gamma induced SOM and SP. Thioglycolate-elicited, unstimulated peritoneal macrophages also synthesized these peptides. SOM (10(-12)-10(-8) M) significantly inhibited IL-6 and IFN-gamma production, whereas SP at those concentrations enhanced cytokine production by activated lymphocytes and macrophages. These findings suggest that neuropeptides which originate from macrophages and nerve fibers act as immunomodulators to mediate changes in the pattern of cytokine production.

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