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Lancet. 2000 Jun 3;355(9219):1949-54.

Glycine antagonist (gavestinel) in neuroprotection (GAIN International) in patients with acute stroke: a randomised controlled trial. GAIN International Investigators.

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University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK.



Early treatment may improve acute ischaemic stroke outcome. Gavestinel is a selective antagonist at the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and is neuroprotective in animal models of ischaemic stroke.


We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test whether gavestinel could improve functional outcome after acute stroke in human beings. Conscious patients with stroke involving limb weakness received either gavestinel at an intravenous loading dose of 800 mg followed by 200 mg every 12 h for five doses, or matching placebo, within 6 h of stroke onset. Stratification variables were age and stroke severity. A computed tomography brain scan within 18 h of stroke onset identified the primary efficacy population with ischaemic stroke. Outcome was assessed by an independent observer with the Barthel index at 3 months. Three outcome categories were applied: good (Barthel index 95-100), moderate (60-90), and poor (0-55 or dead). Analysis was by intention to treat.


Of 1804 patients randomised, 16 received no treatment, and 333 had primary intracranial haemorrhage. 891 patients received gavestinel and 897 received placebo. Outcome in 721 patients who received gavestinel and were analysed for the primary endpoint at 3 months was good in 246 (34.1%), moderate in 136 (18.8%), and poor in 339 (47.0%), compared with 256 (34.9%), 133 (18.1%), and 345 (47.0%), respectively, of 734 patients who received placebo (p=0.8). Mortality at 3 months was 147 (20.4%) in the gavestinel group and 138 (18.8%) in the placebo group. Outcomes within preplanned subgroup and secondary analyses were also neutral. There were no significant differences in serious side-effects between the groups.


Treatment with gavestinel within 6 h of acute ischaemic stroke did not improve outcome.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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