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AIDS. 2000 May 26;14(8):1009-15.

Prevalence of genotypic and phenotypic resistance to anti-retroviral drugs in a cohort of therapy-naïve HIV-1 infected US military personnel.

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U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Rockville, MD, USA.



While transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 has been reported, estimates of prevalence of resistance in drug-naïve populations are incomplete. We investigated the prevalence of genotypic mutations and phenotypic antiretroviral resistance in a cohort of HIV-1 infected U.S. military personnel prior to the institution of antiretroviral therapy.


Cross-sectional cohort study.


Plasma was obtained from 114 recently HIV-1 infected subjects enrolled in an epidemiological study. Genotypic resistance was determined by consensus sequencing of a PCR product from the HIV-1 pol gene. Sequences were interpreted by a phenotypic-genotypic correlative database. Resistance phenotypes were determined by a recombinant virus cell culture assay.


Genotypic mutations and phenotypic resistance were found at a higher than expected frequency. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was most common, with a prevalence of 15% of 95 subjects by genotype and 26% of 91 subjects by phenotype. Genotypic and phenotypic resistance respectively were found in 4% and 8% of subjects for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and in 10% and 1% for protease inhibitors. One subject harbored virus with resistance to all three drug classes.


A substantial frequency of resistance to antiretroviral drugs was identified in a therapy-naïve U.S. cohort. In most cases, the genotypic and phenotypic assays yielded similar results, although the genotypic assay could detect some protease inhibitor resistance-associated mutations in the absence of phenotypic resistance. These data suggest the need for optimization of treatment guidelines based on current estimates of the prevalence of drug resistance in HIV-1 seroconverters.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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