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Kidney Int. 2000 Jun;57(6):2375-85.

Ischemic acute renal failure: long-term histology of cell and matrix changes in the rat.

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1
Victorian Paediatric Renal Service, Royal Children's Hospital, and Department of Nephrology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The cellular infiltration and matrix accumulation accompanying acute renal ischemia and reperfusion have been frequently noted but poorly defined. The long-term consequences of ischemia may irreversibly damage the kidney.

METHODS:

Female Sprague-Dawley rats (200 g) underwent unilateral nephrectomy. After five days, the left renal pedicle was occluded for 45 minutes. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 180 days postischemia (N = 6). Immunohistochemistry for monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Mphi, ED-1), myofibroblasts [alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA)], collagen III and IV, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and terminal dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) were performed.

RESULTS:

Kidney weights of postischemic animals were increased at all time points (postischemic to controls, 1.47 +/- 0.21 to 0.94 +/- 0.12 g at day 8; 1.49 +/- 0.20 to 1.27 +/- 0.13 g at day 64; and 1.86 +/- 0.1 to 1. 24 +/- 0.2 g at day 180). Serum creatinine values increased to 0.42 +/- 0.10 mmol/L at day 2 but returned to control levels by day 8 (0. 05 mmol/L). Glomerular collagen IV was decreased from 2 to 16 days postischemia, which was accompanied by an increase in MMP-2. The fractional area of the interstitium was greatest at day 8 (19.55 +/- 0.91% compared with day 0 at 8.08 +/- 0.27%), with a second increase observed at day 180 (16.61 +/- 0.70%). Interstitial Mo/Mphi increased postischemia from days 2 through 8 (8.84 +/- 2.12 to 133. 32 +/- 14.04 per 0.91 mm2) and then decreased. Myofibroblasts proliferated locally (PCNA double labeling was demonstrated), and increased numbers were found from days 2 through 16 (maximal at day 8, 26.96 +/- 3.04%, compared with day 0, 0.88 +/- 0.11%). In the postischemic groups, collagen IV increased to day 8 (20.84 +/- 1. 30%), but then decreased to below control values at day 64 (2.22 +/- 0.15%) before returning to normal by day 180. Interstitial collagen III increased to 8 days (0.45 +/- 0.07% to 2.55 +/- 0.36%) and then decreased to control levels by day 32, but showed a marked increase to approximately 6% at days 64 and 180. Cellular proliferation (PCNA) was maximal at days 2 and 4 (affecting tubule cells and myofibroblasts but not macrophages). Apoptosis was maximal at day 8 (in both interstitial and tubule cells) in the postischemic groups.

CONCLUSION:

Marked changes in the accumulation of Mo/Mphi, MF, and collagen IV were found in this model of ischemic acute renal failure. The reversibility of functional and structural changes is in marked contrast to that found in progressive disease. The increases observed for collagen III at 64 and 180 days postischemia suggest that in the long term, however, further chronic structural changes may be observed.

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