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Anim Reprod Sci. 2000 Jul 2;60-61:593-604.

The reproductive pattern and efficiency of female buffaloes.

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Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana, India.


Buffaloes play a prominent role in rural livestock production, particularly in Asia. Reproductive efficiency is the primary factor affecting productivity and is hampered in female buffalo by (i) inherent late maturity, (ii) poor estrus expression in summer, (iii) distinct seasonal reproductive patterns, and (iv) prolonged intercalving intervals. Ovarian function is central to these issues; hence, the focal point of this review is ovarian function in Bubalus bubalis, particularly, in relation to seasonal changes. Ovarian anatomy, follicular and luteal development development, and hormonal profiles during the estrous cycle are discussed. Review of the literature revealed a paucity of critically derived information on follicular and ovulatory patterns in buffalo, particularly, in relation to seasonal estrus/birthing. Efforts may be directed at understanding the process (recruitment, development, atresia) and temporal pattern (follicle selection, dominance, subordinate follicle suppression, follicle numbers, and, preovulatory changes) of follicular dynamics using techniques which permit serial assessment of changes occurring over time. Emphasis may be directed towards investigating follicular "waves" as a functional unit, rather than the estrous cycle, in the context of whole animal endocrinology. The data obtained from such basic studies may then be used to develop and test models for enhancing reproductive efficiency.

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