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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1999 Oct 1;22(2):161-6.

Prevalence and incidence of HIV among incarcerated and reincarcerated women in Rhode Island.

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The Miriam Hospital/Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02906, USA.


This study explores recent temporal trends in HIV prevalence among women entering prison and the incidence and associated risk factors among women reincarcerated in Rhode Island. Results from mandatory HIV testing from 1992 to 1996 for all incarcerated women were examined. In addition, a case control study was conducted on all seroconverters from 1989 to 1997. In all, 5836 HIV tests were performed on incarceration in 3146 women, 105 of whom tested positive (prevalence, 3.3%). Between 1992 and 1996, the annual prevalence of HIV among all women known to be HIV-positive was stable (p = .12). Age >25 years, nonwhite race, and prior incarceration were associated with seropositivity. Of 1081 initially seronegative women who were retested on reincarceration, 12 seroconverted during 1885 person-years (PY) of follow-up (incidence, 0.6/100 PY). Self-reported injection drug use (IDU; odds ratio [OR], 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-10.1) was significantly associated with seroconversion, but sexual risk was not (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-3.5). Incarceration serves as an opportunity for initiation of treatment and linkage to community services for a population that is at high risk for HIV infection.

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