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J Exp Med. 2000 Jun 5;191(11):1987-97.

Modulation of susceptibility to HIV-1 infection by the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 costimulatory molecule.

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Department of Molecular and Cellular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA.


CD4 T cells activated in vitro by anti-CD3/28-coated beads are resistant to infection by CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)-dependent HIV-1 isolates. In vivo, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) activate CD4 T cells in part by signaling through the T cell receptor and CD28, yet cells stimulated in this manner are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. We show that cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) engagement counteracts the CD28 antiviral effects, and that the ratio of CTLA-4 to CD28 engagement determines the susceptibility of HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, unopposed CTLA-4 signaling provided by CD28 blockade promotes vigorous HIV-1 replication, despite minimal T cell proliferation. Finally, CTLA-4 antibodies decrease the susceptibility of antigen-activated CD4 T cells to HIV, suggesting a potential approach to prevent or limit viral spread in HIV-1-infected individuals.

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