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Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun;71(6):1439-47.

Changes in plasma lipoproteins during low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets: effects of energy intake.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Low-fat diets can increase plasma triacylglycerol and reduce HDL cholesterol. Changes in energy intake and body weight can influence the lipoprotein response.

OBJECTIVE:

We sought to prospectively examine the effects of euenergetic and ad libitum dietary fat restriction on plasma lipoproteins in healthy postmenopausal women.

DESIGN:

Participants first received a controlled euenergetic diet in which dietary fat was reduced stepwise from 35% to 25% to 15% over 4 mo. Thereafter, participants followed an ad libitum 15%-fat diet for 8 mo; 54 women completed the intervention.

RESULTS:

During the controlled euenergetic diet, plasma triacylglycerol increased from 1.70 +/- 0.10 to 2.30 +/- 0.16 mmol/L, total cholesterol decreased from 5.87 +/- 0.13 to 5.53 +/- 0. 13 mmol/L, LDL cholesterol decreased from 3.41 +/- 0.10 to 2.87 +/- 0.10 mmol/L, HDL cholesterol decreased from 1.76 +/- 0.08 to 1.50 +/- 0.08 mmol/L, and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I decreased from 5.11 +/- 0.14 to 4.78 +/- 0.14 mmol/L (P < 0.0001 for all changes). Hormone replacement therapy did not affect the relative change in HDL cholesterol. Plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A(1C,) free fatty acid, and apo B concentrations did not change significantly. During the ad libitum 15%-fat diet, participants lost 4.6 +/- 0.4 kg. Plasma triacylglycerol and LDL cholesterol returned to baseline values (1.77 +/- 0.12 and 3.31 +/- 0.08 mmol/L, respectively), whereas HDL cholesterol and apo A-I remained low (1.40 +/- 0.08 and 4.82 +/- 0.18 mmol/L, respectively). HDL cholesterol and apo A-I concentrations stabilized in subjects who were not receiving hormone replacement therapy but continued to decline in women who were receiving hormone therapy.

CONCLUSIONS:

The ad libitum 15%-fat diet resulted in significant weight loss. The euenergetic but not the ad libitum diet caused hypertriacylglycerolemia. HDL cholesterol decreased during both low-fat diets.

PMID:
10837283
DOI:
10.1093/ajcn/71.6.1439
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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