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Exp Cell Res. 2000 Jun 15;257(2):310-9.

Human G protein gamma(11) and gamma(14) subtypes define a new functional subclass.

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Henry Hood M.D. Research Program, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Danville, Pennsylvania, 17822, USA.


The mammalian gamma subunit family consists of a minimum of 12 members. Analysis of the amino acid sequence conservation suggests that the gamma subunit family can be divided into three distinct subclasses. The division of the gamma subunit family into these classes is based not only on amino acid homology, but also to some extent on functional similarities. In the present study, two new members of the gamma subunit family, the gamma(11) and gamma(14) subunits, are identified and characterized in terms of their expression and function. The gamma(11) and gamma(14) subunits are most closely related to the gamma(1) subunit and share similar biochemical properties, suggesting their inclusion in class I. However, despite their close phylogenetic relationship and similar biochemical properties, the gamma(1), gamma(11), and gamma(14) subunits exhibit very distinct expression patterns, suggesting that class I should be further subdivided and that the signaling functions of each subgroup are distinct. In this regard, the gamma(11) and gamma(14) subunits represent a new subgroup of farnesylated gamma subunits that are expressed outside the retina and have functions other than phototransduction.

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