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J Biol Chem. 2000 Aug 18;275(33):25681-9.

Activation of serum response factor in the depolarization induction of Egr-1 transcription in pancreatic islet beta-cells.

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1
Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. aplab1@imgate.wustl.edu

Abstract

The results of the current studies define the major elements whereby glucose metabolism in islet beta-cells leads to transcriptional activation of an early response gene in insulinoma cell lines and in rat islets. Glucose stimulation (2-20 mm) resulted in a 4-fold increase in Egr-1 mRNA at 30 min, as did the depolarizing agents KCl and tolbutamide. This response was inhibited by diazoxide and EGTA, indicating that beta-cell depolarization and Ca(2+) influx, respectively, are essential. Pharmacological inhibition of the Egr-1 induction by H89 (48%) and calmidazolium (35%), but not by mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1 and 2 or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, implied that protein kinase A and Ca(2+)/calmodulin pathways are involved. Deletion mapping of the Egr-1 promoter revealed that the proximal -198 base pairs containing two serum response elements (SREs) and one cAMP-response element retained the depolarization response. Depolarization resulted in phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein, yet partial inhibition by a dominant negative cAMP-response element-binding protein, along with a robust response of a cAMP-response element-mutated Egr-1 promoter suggested the presence of a second Ca(2+)-responsive element. Depolarization activation of 5XSRE-LUC and serum response factor (SRF)-GAL4 constructs, along with activation of SRF-GAL4 by co-transfection with constitutively active calmodulin kinase IV and protein kinase A, and binding of Ser(103)-phosphorylated SRF in nuclear extracts, indicated that the SRE.SRF complexes contribute to the Ca(2+)-mediated transcriptional regulation of Egr-1. The results of the current experiments demonstrate for the first time SRE-dependent transcription and the role of SRF, a transcription factor known to be a major component of growth responses, in glucose-mediated transcriptional regulation in insulinoma cells.

PMID:
10829028
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M003424200
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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