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Mod Pathol. 2000 May;13(5):577-85.

Extragastrointestinal (soft tissue) stromal tumors: an analysis of 48 cases with emphasis on histologic predictors of outcome.

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1
University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

Abstract

The clinicopathologic features of 48 tumors that were histologically similar to gastrointestinal stromal tumors but occurred in the soft tissues of the abdomen were analyzed to determine their overall similarity to their gastrointestinal counterpart, their biologic behavior, and the parameters that predict risk for adverse outcome. Classic leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas were specifically excluded. The tumors occurred in 32 women and 16 men, who ranged in age from 31 to 82 years (mean, 58 years). Forty tumors arose from the soft tissue of the abdominal cavity, and the remainder arose from the retroperitoneum. They ranged in size from 2.1 to 32.0 cm and varied from tumors composed purely of rounded epithelioid cells to those composed of short fusiform cells set in a fine fibrillary collagenous background with some cases showing a mixed pattern. Tumors displayed variable amounts of stromal hyalinization, myxoid change, and cyst formation. The tumors expressed CD117 (c-kit receptor) (100%), CD34 (50%), neuron-specific enolase (44%), smooth muscle actin (26%), desmin (4%), and S-100 protein (4%). Tumors were evaluated with respect to several parameters: size (<10 cm or >10 cm), cellularity (low or high), mitoses (0 to 2 per 50 high-power fields, >2 per 50 high-power fields), nuclear atypia (1 to 3+), cell type (epithelioid, spindled, or mixed), and necrosis (absent or present). These parameters were then evaluated in univariate and multivariate analysis with respect to adverse or nonadverse outcome, the former defined as metastasis or death from tumor. Follow-up information was obtained for 31 patients (range, 4 to 84 months; median, 24 months). One patient presented with an adverse event and, therefore, was excluded from subsequent analysis. Twelve patients (39%) developed metastases or died of tumor. In univariate analyses, cellularity, mitotic activity (>2 per 50 high-power fields), and necrosis were associated with statistically significant increases in the risk for adverse outcome. Despite the relatively small sample size, in a multivariable analysis mitotic activity (relative risk, 7.46; P = .09) and necrosis (relative risk, 3.75; P = .07) displayed trends toward independent predictive value. No association was noted between histologic pattern and outcome. Although only 39% of tumors behaved in a malignant fashion, this figure probably represents a conservative estimate because long-term follow-up (>5 years) was available for only a limited number of patients. Stratification of patients who have extragastrointestinal stromal tumor into those with 0 to 1 adverse histologic factors versus those with 2 to 3 offers the advantage of separating patients into two groups that have a markedly different risk for adverse outcome in the short term (0.02 events versus 0.54 events per person-year; P < .001, respectively). Extragastrointestinal (soft tissue) stromal tumors are histologically and immunophenotypically similar to their gastrointestinal counterpart but have an aggressive course more akin to small intestinal than gastric stromal tumors.

PMID:
10824931
DOI:
10.1038/modpathol.3880099
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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