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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 6;97(12):6896-901.

The Arabidopsis thaliana salt tolerance gene SOS1 encodes a putative Na+/H+ antiporter.

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Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.


In Arabidopsis thaliana, the SOS1 (Salt Overly Sensitive 1) locus is essential for Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis, and sos1 mutations render plants more sensitive to growth inhibition by high Na(+) and low K(+) environments. SOS1 is cloned and predicted to encode a 127-kDa protein with 12 transmembrane domains in the N-terminal part and a long hydrophilic cytoplasmic tail in the C-terminal part. The transmembrane region of SOS1 has significant sequence similarities to plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporters from bacteria and fungi. Sequence analysis of various sos1 mutant alleles reveals several residues and regions in the transmembrane as well as the tail parts that are critical for SOS1 function in plant salt tolerance. SOS1 gene expression in plants is up-regulated in response to NaCl stress. This up-regulation is abated in sos3 or sos2 mutant plants, suggesting that it is controlled by the SOS3/SOS2 regulatory pathway.

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