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Vaccine. 2000 May 26;18 Suppl 2:1-25.

New initiatives for the control of Japanese encephalitis by vaccination: minutes of a WHO/CVI meeting, Bangkok, Thailand, 13-15 October 1998.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA.


Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia that, in several countries, has been controlled effectively through national vaccine programs. However, in recent years, transmission has been recognized or has intensified in new locations where the available vaccines are either unaffordable or unlicensed. In addition, the near-eradication of poliomyelitis from Asia has elevated JE in the public health agenda of preventable childhood diseases, and surveillance of acute neurological infections to confirm polio eradication, simultaneously, has led to a greater awareness of the disease burden attributable to JE. The only internationally licensed JE vaccine, an inactivated mouse-brain derived vaccine, is efficacious but is problematic from the perspectives of reactogenicity, requirement for numerous doses, cost and reliance on a neurological tissue substrate. A live-attenuated vaccine distributed only in China also is efficacious and requires fewer doses; however, production and regulatory standards are unresolved. Several approaches toward developing novel JE vaccines that could fill the gap in JE vaccine need are under pursuit. The minutes and recommendations of a meeting of experts to discuss these issues, jointly sponsored by the World Health Organization and the Children's Vaccine Initiative in Bangkok, Thailand, 13-15 October, 1998, are presented.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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