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J Agric Food Chem. 2000 May;48(5):1817-22.

Effects of thermal processing and storage on available lysine and furfural compounds contents of infant formulas.

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Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain,


The Maillard reaction-related effects that thermal treatments during the manufacturing process and storage (at 20 and 37 degrees C) have on powdered adapted and follow-up milk-based infant formulas were estimated by measuring the available lysine and furfural compounds contents of raw cow milk used in manufacturing, intermediate products and formulas. A fluorimetric method was used to measure the available lysine contents, and free and total furfural compounds were determined by HPLC. Statistically significant losses in available lysine (about 20%) in the infant formulas with respect to raw milk were found. The storage period did not affect the available lysine contents of adapted formulas but reduced (16%) the contents of the follow-up ones (from 6.61 to 5.33 g/100 g of protein). No furfural compounds were detected in raw milk, and free and total furyl methyl ketone (FMC) and methylfurfural (MF) were not observed in the analyzed samples. After 6 months of storage, an increase in free hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (from 0.34 to 0.77 mg/100 g of protein) and furfural (F) (from nondetectable to 0.1 mg/100 g of protein) in adapted formulas and free HMF (from 1.84 to 2.62 mg/100 g of protein) in follow-up formulas was observed.

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