Send to

Choose Destination
J Neurosci. 2000 Jun 1;20(11):4177-88.

A MAP kinase-signaling pathway mediates neurite outgrowth on L1 and requires Src-dependent endocytosis.

Author information

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7260, USA.


The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 mediates the axon outgrowth, adhesion, and fasciculation necessary for proper development of synaptic connections. Mutations of human L1 cause an X-linked mental retardation syndrome termed CRASH (corpus callosum hypoplasia, retardation, aphasia, spastic paraplegia, and hydrocephalus), and L1 knock-out mice display defects in neuronal process extension resembling the CRASH phenotype. Little is known about the biochemical or cellular mechanism by which L1 performs neuronal functions. Here it is demonstrated that clustering of L1 with antibodies or L1 protein in rodent B35 neuroblastoma and cerebellar neuron cultures induced the phosphorylation/activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. MAPK activation was essential for L1-dependent neurite outgrowth, because chemical inhibitors [2-(2'-amino-3'-methoxyphenyl)-oxanaphthalen-4-one and 1,4-diamino-2, 3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio)butadiene] of the MAPK kinase MEK strongly suppressed neurite outgrowth by cerebellar neurons on L1. The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase pp60(c-src) was required for L1-triggered MAPK phosphorylation, as shown in src-minus cerebellar neurons and by expression of the kinase-inactive mutant Src(K295M) in B35 neuroblastoma cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and the small GTPase p21(rac) were identified as signaling intermediates to MAPK by phosphoinositide and Rac-GTP assays and expression of inhibitory mutants. Antibody-induced endocytosis of L1, visualized by immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy of B35 cells, was blocked by expression of kinase-inactive Src(K295M) and dominant-negative dynamin(K44A) but not by inhibitors of MEK or PI3-kinase. Dynamin(K44A) also inhibited L1 antibody-triggered MAPK phosphorylation. This study supports a model in which pp60(c-src) regulates dynamin-mediated endocytosis of L1 as an essential step in MAPK-dependent neurite outgrowth on an L1 substrate.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center