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Am J Bot. 2000 May;87(5):652-60.

Outcrossing rate and inbreeding depression in the perennial yellow bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae).

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University of California, Bodega Marine Laboratory, P. O. Box 247, Bodega Bay, California 94923 USA.


Little is known about the breeding systems of perennial Lupinus species. We provide information about the breeding system of the perennial yellow bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus, specifically determining self-compatibility, outcrossing rate, and level of inbreeding depression. Flowers are self-compatible, but autonomous self-fertilization rarely occurs; thus selfed seed are a product of facilitated selfing. Based on four isozyme loci from 34 maternal progeny arrays of seeds we estimated an outcrossing rate of 0.78. However, when we accounted for differential maturation of selfed seeds, the outcrossing rate at fertilization was lower, ∼0.64. Fitness and inbreeding depression of 11 selfed and outcrossed families were measured at four stages: seed maturation, seedling emergence, seedling survivorship, and growth at 12 wk. Cumulative inbreeding depression across all four life stages averaged 0.59, although variation existed between families for the magnitude of inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression was not manifest uniformly across all four life stages. Outcrossed flowers produced twice as many seeds as selfed flowers, but the mean performance of selfed and outcrossed progeny was not different for emergence, seedling survivorship, and size at 12 wk. Counter to assumptions about this species, L. arboreus is both self-compatible and outcrosses ∼78% of the time.

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