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Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jul 1;60(1):7-17.

Stereoselective sulfoxidation of sulindac sulfide by flavin-containing monooxygenases. Comparison of human liver and kidney microsomes and mammalian enzymes.

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Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.


The stereoselective sulfoxidation of the pharmacologically active metabolite of sulindac, sulindac sulfide, was characterized in human liver, kidney, and cDNA-expressed enzymes. Kinetic parameter estimates (pH = 7.4) for sulindac sulfoxide formation in human liver microsomes (N = 4) for R- and S-sulindac sulfoxide were V(max) = 1.5 +/- 0.50 nmol/min/mg, K(m) = 15 +/- 5.1 microM; and V(max) = 1.1 +/- 0.36 nmol/min/mg, K(m) = 16 +/- 6.1 microM, respectively. Kidney microsomes (N = 3) produced parameter estimates (pH = 7.4) of V(max) = 0.9 +/- 0.29 nmol/min/mg, K(m) = 15 +/- 2.9 microM; V(max) = 0.5 +/- 0.21 nmol/min/mg, K(m) = 22 +/- 1.9 microM for R- and S-sulindac sulfoxide, respectively. In human liver and flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) the V(max) for R-sulindac sulfoxide increased 60-70% at pH = 8.5, but for S-sulindac sulfoxide was unchanged. In fourteen liver microsomal preparations, significant correlations occurred between R-sulindac sulfoxide formation and either immunoquantified FMO or nicotine N-oxidation (r = 0.88 and 0.83; P < 0.01). The R- and S-sulindac sulfoxide formation rate also correlated significantly (r = 0.85 and 0.75; P < 0.01) with immunoquantified FMO in thirteen kidney microsomal samples. Mild heat deactivation of microsomes reduced activity by 30-60%, and a loss in stereoselectivity was observed. Methimazole was a potent and nonstereoselective inhibitor of sulfoxidation in liver and kidney microsomes. n-Octylamine and membrane solubilization with lubrol were potent and selective inhibitors of S-sulindac sulfoxide formation. cDNA-expressed CYPs failed to appreciably sulfoxidate sulindac sulfide, and CYP inhibitors were ineffective in suppressing catalytic activity. Purified mini-pig liver FMO1, rabbit lung FMO2, and human cDNA-expressed FMO3 efficiently oxidized sulindac sulfide with a high degree of stereoselectivity towards the R-isomer, but FMO5 lacked catalytic activity. The biotransformation of the sulfide to the sulfoxide is catalyzed predominately by FMOs and may prove to be useful in characterizing FMO activity.

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