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Plant Physiol. 2000 May;123(1):353-62.

AVP2, a sequence-divergent, K(+)-insensitive H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase from Arabidopsis.

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Plant Science Institute, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104-6018, USA.


Plant vacuolar H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatases (V-PPases; EC have been considered to constitute a family of functionally and structurally monotonous intrinsic membrane proteins. Typified by AVP1 (V. Sarafian, Y. Kim, R.J. Poole, P.A. Rea [1992] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 1775-1779) from Arabidopsis, all characterized plant V-PPases share greater than 84% sequence identity and catalyze K(+)-stimulated H(+) translocation. Here we describe the molecular and biochemical characterization of AVP2 (accession no. AF182813), a sequence-divergent (36% identical) K(+)-insensitive, Ca(2+)-hypersensitive V-PPase active in both inorganic pyrophosphate hydrolysis and H(+) translocation. The differences between AVP2 and AVP1 provide the first indication that plant V-PPases from the same organism fall into two distinct categories. Phylogenetic analyses of these and other V-PPase sequences extend this principle by showing that AVP2, rather than being an isoform of AVP1, is but one representative of a novel category of AVP2-like (type II) V-PPases that coexist with AVP1-like (type I) V-PPases not only in plants, but also in apicomplexan protists such as the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

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