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J Infect Dis. 2000 May;181 Suppl 2:S349-59.

Diagnosis of human caliciviruses by use of enzyme immunoassays.

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Center for Pediatric Research, Norfolk, VA 23510-1001, USA.


The application of molecular technologies, such as the expression of viral proteins in baculovirus, has provided a powerful approach to the diagnosis of human calicivirus (HuCV) infections. The baculovirus-expressed HuCV capsid protein self-assembles into virus-like particles, providing excellent reagents for immunologic assays, such as enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). Following the expression of the capsid protein of Norwalk virus, the capsid proteins of 8 other HuCV strains have been expressed in baculovirus. The unlimited supply of baculovirus-produced reagents for HuCVs allows these EIAs to be applied in large-scale clinical and epidemiological studies. Both the antigen and antibody-detection EIAs are highly sensitive. The antigen-detection EIAs are highly specific, but the antibody-detection EIAs are more broadly reactive. This article reviews baculovirus expression techniques used to produce HuCV capsid antigens, development of EIAs using these antigens, and application of these EIAs in studies of HuCV infection and illness.

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