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Childs Nerv Syst. 2000 Mar;16(3):176-9; discussion 180.

Cloverleaf skull and multiple congenital anomalies in a girl exposed to cocaine in utero: case report and review of the literature.

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  • 1Department of Research in Human Genetics, Instituto Nacional de PediatrĂ­a, Mexico, DF.


The case of a girl with cloverleaf skull (CLS) and multiple congenital anomalies is reported. Both parents have a history of drug use. Maternal cocaine abuse during the first trimester of pregnancy was obvious, and other drugs, such as marihuana and alcohol, were also taken by the mother. Many central nervous system malformations have been reported in association with cocaine abuse, the most severe being midline defects and neural tube defects. To our knowledge this is the first case reported of CLS anomaly associated with drug exposure. We also describe other anomalies not previously reported in association with CLS.

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