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Int J Pharm. 2000 Apr 20;199(2):119-27.

Formulation and evaluation of ophthalmic preparations of acetazolamide.

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University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.


The orally administered acetazolamide has a limited use in glaucoma due to the systemic side effects associated with its use. It has been reported to show little effect on the intraocular pressure (IOP) of human and rabbit eyes upon topical application, probably owing to its poor bioavailability and instability at pH >5.0. In order to enhance the bioavailability of the drug, contact time between the drug molecules and the ocular surface was increased using high viscosity, water soluble polymers (PVA, HPMC), and by incorporating acetazolamide into an in situ-forming ophthalmic drug delivery system. Moreover, a penetration enhancer (EDTA) was also used in these formulations to increase the extent of absorption of the drug. Acetazolamide at a concentration of 10% was used and the formulations (eyedrop suspensions) were evaluated for their in vitro release pattern. The effect of these formulations on the IOP in normotensive conscious rabbits was also investigated. These formulations were found to be therapeutically effective with a peak effect at 2 h. A fall in IOP of up to 46.4% was observed with repeated administration of one of the formulation containing PVA, EDTA and Tween 80 (MK-5). Results indicated that a topical effect of acetazolamide can be observed if the formulation, (a) contains a suitable polymer-to increase the residence time; (b) a penetration enhancer-as acetazolamide has a low permeability coefficient i.e. 4. 1x10(-6) cm/s [Duffel, M.W., Ing. I.S., Segarra, T.M., Dixson, J.A., Barfknecht, C.F., Schoenwald, R.D., 1986. J. Med. Chem. 29, 1488-1494]; and (c) pH of the formulation is maintained at the point of maximum stability (pH< or =5.0).

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