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J Insect Physiol. 2000 Jun 1;46(6):887-896.

Circadian component influences the photoperiodic induction of diapause in a drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata.

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Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, Ceské Budejovice, Czech Republic


The last-instar larvae of a drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata enter diapause in response to the dark-phases longer than 9 h (Yoshida, T., Kimura, M.T., 1995. The photoperiodic clock in Chymomyza costata. Journal of Insect Physiology 41, 217-222). In order to switch the developmental programming of the sensitive larvae from continuous development to diapause, after they were transferred from the short (8 h) to the long (14 h) dark-phase, significantly less time (1-2 days) was required when the dark-phase was abruptly and asymmetrically extended into the evening, than when it was extended symmetrically into both morning and evening (2-3 days), or asymmetrically into the morning hours (4-6 days). Diapause was also induced in 40-70% of sensitive larvae that were reared under the gradually shortening light-phase (from 16 h to 2 h, by 1 h in each cycle), despite that the dark-phase remained constant and short (8 h). Larvae developed continuously, however, when reared under the gradually extending light-phase (from 16 h to 24 h) and a constantly short dark-phase. We interpret such results, with the help of the two-oscillator model of circadian rhythmicity (Pittendrigh, C.S., Daan, S., 1976. A functional analysis of circadian pacemakers in nocturnal rodents. V. Pacemaker structure: A clock for all seasons. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 106, 333-355), as indicating that two mutually coupled oscillators (evening and morning) differing in their entrainability may participate in measuring of the dark-phase duration. The levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the larval CNS transiently increased (by up to 20%) after the dusk, while no apparent change was observed during the dawn. The dusk-related increase was observed also after the asymmetric extension of the dark-phase into evening, while the asymmetric extension into morning had no effect on the levels of the DA and 5-HT.

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