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Brain Res. 2000 May 12;864(2):315-26.

Recombinant nef HIV-IIIB protein is toxic to human neurons in culture.

Author information

1
Section of Experimental Neuropathology and Psychiatry, Department of Neuropathology, IoP, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London, UK.

Abstract

The expression of HIV-1 negative factor (nef) has been positively correlated with HIV disease progression [Z. Hanna, D.G. Kay, N. Rebai, A. Guimond, S. Jothy, P. Jocicoeur, Nef harbors a makor determinant of pathogenicity for an AIDS-like disease induced by HIV-1 in transgenic mice. Cell 95 (1998) 163-175]. Nef expression has been detected in HIV infected human brains with neuronal damage [A. Ranki, M. Nyberg, V. Ovod, M. Haltia, I. Elovaara, R. Raininko, H. Haapsalo, K. Krohn, Abundant expression of HIV Nef and Rev proteins in brain astrocytes in associated with dementia, AIDS 9(9) (1995) 1001-1008; Y. Saito, L.R. Sharer, M.G. Epstein, J. Michaels, M. Mintz, M. Londer, K. Golding, B.M. Blumberg, Overexpression of nef as a marker for restricted HIV-1 infection of astrocytes in postmorten paediatric central tissues, Neurology 14 (1994) 474-480]. It is postulated that nef may contribute to the neuronal damage observed in the brain of those with late HIV disease. To test this, the potential toxicity of recombinant nef (from HIV-1 IIIB) was compared to the neurotoxin human tumour necrosis alpha (TNFalpha) on human brain cells in culture. SK-N-SH neuroblastoma, primary human neurons and glial cells were exposed to recombinant nef or TNFalpha protein for 3 days or twice over 6 days. Cell viability was assessed by Trypan Blue, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and MTT assays. Nuclear fragmentation was detected using the Hoechst Blue nuclear dye assay. Both nef and TNFalpha (100 ng/ml) caused a significant 30% reduction of SK-N-SH cell numbers after 3 days exposure (P=0. 001). At this time, exposure to nef caused evident fragmented nuclei in these cultures. Human neuronal cultures had a 32 and 33% decrease in cell number after 6 days exposure to either nef or TNFalpha, respectively (P<0.001). Furthermore, as previously shown [J. He, C.M. DeCastro, G.R. Vandenbark, J. Busciglio, D. Gabuzda, Astrocyte apoptosis induced by HIV-1 transactivation of the c-kit protoonocogene, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94 (1997) 3954-3959], a 3-day exposure to nef significantly reduced human glial cell number by 25% (P=0.001). Recombinant nef and TNFalpha compromise human neurons in culture. Thus, like other virotoxins, it is shown for the first time that nef may also contribute to neuronal damage that has been reported in dementia in late HIV disease.

PMID:
10802040
DOI:
10.1016/s0006-8993(00)02213-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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