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Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000009.

Acupuncture for smoking cessation.

Author information

  • 1Department of Complementary Medicine, University of Exeter, 25 Victoria Park Road, Exeter, UK, EX2 4NT. a.r.white@exeter.ac.uk

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Acupuncture is promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation, and is believed to reduce withdrawal symptoms.

OBJECTIVES:

The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in smoking cessation in comparison with: a) sham acupuncture b) other interventions c) no intervention.

SEARCH STRATEGY:

We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, Medline, PsycLit, Dissertation Abstracts, Health Planning and Administration, Social SciSearch, Smoking & Health, Embase, Biological Abstracts and DRUG.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

Randomised trials comparing a form of acupuncture with either sham acupuncture, another intervention or no intervention for smoking cessation.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

We extracted data in duplicate on the type of subjects, the nature of the acupuncture and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before 6 weeks), at six months and at one year follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing to smoke. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model.

MAIN RESULTS:

We identified 18 publications involving 20 comparisons. Acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture in smoking cessation at any time point. The odds ratio (OR) for early outcomes was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.49); the OR after 6 months was 1.38 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.11) and after 12 months 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.43). Similarly, when acupuncture was compared with other anti-smoking interventions, there were no differences in outcome at any time point. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to no intervention in the early results, but this difference was not sustained. The results with different acupuncture techniques do not show any one particular method (i.e. auricular acupuncture or non-auricular acupuncture) to be superior to control intervention.

REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS:

There is no clear evidence that acupuncture is effective for smoking cessation.

PMID:
10796466
DOI:
10.1002/14651858.CD000009
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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