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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Apr 25;97(9):4844-9.

15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 inhibits multiple steps in the NF-kappa B signaling pathway.

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Biomedical Sciences Division, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.


Prostaglandin J(2) (PGJ(2)) and its metabolites Delta(12)-PGJ(2) and 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) are naturally occurring derivatives of prostaglandin D(2) that have been suggested to exert antiinflammatory effects in vivo. 15d-PGJ(2) is a high-affinity ligand for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and has been demonstrated to inhibit the induction of inflammatory response genes, including inducible NO synthase and tumor necrosis factor alpha, in a PPARgamma-dependent manner. We report here that 15d-PGJ(2) potently inhibits NF-kappaB-dependent transcription by two additional PPARgamma-independent mechanisms. Several lines of evidence suggest that 15d-PGJ(2) directly inhibits NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression through covalent modifications of critical cysteine residues in IkappaB kinase and the DNA-binding domains of NF-kappaB subunits. These mechanisms act in combination to inhibit transactivation of the NF-kappaB target gene cyclooxygenase 2. Direct inhibition of NF-kappaB signaling by 15d-PGJ(2) may contribute to negative regulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis and inflammation, suggesting additional approaches to the development of antiinflammatory drugs.

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