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Hypertension. 2000 Apr;35(4):864-8.

Association of insulin resistance with salt sensitivity and nocturnal fall of blood pressure.

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  • 1Division of Atherosclerosis, Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Medicine, National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan.


Insulin resistance was demonstrated in hypertensive patients and in salt-sensitive subjects. It was recently reported that the salt-sensitive state was related to a reduced fall in blood pressure during the night in essential hypertension. In the present study, the relationship among insulin sensitivity, blood pressure response to salt intake, and nocturnal fall in blood pressure was examined in 20 subjects with nondiabetic and nonobese essential hypertension during a low-salt and a high-salt diet. The subjects were maintained on a low-salt diet (50 mmol/d) and a high-salt diet (255 mmol/d) for 1 week each, in random order. On the sixth day of each diet, blood pressure was measured every hour for 24 hours with an automatic device. Insulin sensitivity was measured according to the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) method on the seventh day of each diet. Salt-induced increase in blood pressure, which we defined as the change in 24-hour mean arterial pressure between the low and the high dietary salt intakes, was significantly correlated with SSPG (r=0.60, P<0.01) during the high-salt period. There was a significant negative correlation (r=-0.61, P<0.01) between SSPG and a nocturnal fall in mean arterial pressure during the high-salt period. Salt-induced increase in blood pressure was inversely correlated with a nocturnal fall in mean arterial pressure (r=-0.52, P<0.02) with the high-salt diet. These results suggest that insulin resistance, salt sensitivity, and failed nocturnal fall in blood pressure are associated with each other in subjects with essential hypertension.

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