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J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Apr;48(4):1076-80.

Phenolic composition of grape stems.

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ISVV-INRA, Institut des Produits de la Vigne, Unité de Recherche Biopolymères et Arômes, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 2, France.


Grape stems contain significant amounts of polyphenolic compounds, especially phenolic acids, flavonols, and flavanonols such as astilbin. The tannin content was characterized after the depolymerization reaction thiolysis. Tannins consisted of polymeric proanthocyanidins (up to 27 units) mainly consisting of (-)-epicatechin units along with smaller amounts of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epigallocatechin. Flavanonols (astilbin) have been identified for the first time in stem and characterized by LC/MS and NMR. All phenolic compounds in grape stems were quantified by HPLC: quercetin 3-glucuronide was the most important, followed by catechin, caffeoyltartaric acid, and dihydroquercetin 3-rhamnoside (astilbin). Comparison was made of proanthocyanidin characteristics in different white and red grape varieties and also among parts of the cluster (skin, seed, and stem). Stem-condensed tannins were qualitatively intermediate between seed and skin but could not be differentiated between red and white varieties.

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