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Phytochemistry. 2000 Mar;53(6):659-65.

Sugar sensing and Ca2+-calmodulin requirement in Vitis vinifera cells producing anthocyanins.

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Laboratoire de Mycologie et Biotechnologie Végétale, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Bordeaux II, France.


We have previously reported that sucrose modulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. The main role of sugar in this response does not seem to be that of general carbohydrate source for the supply of energy. In the present work, a number of pharmacological agents were used to further investigate the components of the signal transduction pathway involved in the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis by sugar. We found that the phosphorylation of hexose by hexokinase, but not its transport, has to be taken into account for the sucrose signal transduction leading to anthocyanin accumulation. Indeed, 3-O-methylglucose, a glucose analog transported into cells but not phosphorylated by hexokinase, has no effect on anthocyanin production. Mannose mimics the effect of sucrose in grape cells, and mannoheptulose, a specific inhibitor of hexokinase, reduces the accumulation of anthocyanins in response to sucrose. The results with the two latter analogs are discussed. Ca2+ channel blockers, verapamil and LaCl3, which were used to investigate the role of extracellular Ca2+, all inhibited the sugar response. Ca2+ depletion by pretreatment with ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) also blocked the sugar response, which was partially recovered when Ca2+ was added exogenously after Ca2+ depletion. The use of two potent calmodulin antagonists, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalenesulphonamide (W7) and chlorpromazine, showed that calmodulin is involved in the sugar signal transduction. A protein kinase inhibitor, 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP), and the protein phosphatase inhibitors, endothall and cantharidin, also inhibited the sugar response. The results of the present study suggest the involvement of several components of general signal transduction pathways such as Ca2+, calmodulin, and protein kinases phosphatases in the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis by sugar.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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