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Ann Intern Med. 2000 Apr 4;132(7):525-32.

Prevalence of liver disease and contributing factors in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition for permanent intestinal failure.

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1
Hôpital Lariboisière-St. Lazare, Paris, France.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Liver cholestasis can be a life-threatening complication during home parenteral nutrition and may lead to combined liver-intestinal transplantation.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the prevalence of home parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and its contributing factors in patients with permanent intestinal failure.

DESIGN:

Prospective cohort study.

SETTING:

Two approved home parenteral nutrition centers.

PATIENTS:

90 patients with permanent intestinal failure who were receiving home parenteral nutrition were enrolled from 1985 to 1996.

INTERVENTION:

Clinical, biological, endoscopic, and ultrasonographic follow-up. Histologic examination of the liver was done in 57 patients (112 liver biopsies).

MEASUREMENTS:

The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the actuarial occurrence of chronic cholestasis and complicated home parenteral nutrition-related liver disease (bilirubin level > or =60 micromol/L [3.5 mg/dL], factor V level < or =50%, portal hypertension, encephalopathy, ascites, gastrointestinal bleeding, or histologically proven extensive fibrosis or cirrhosis). Contributing factors were assessed by using univariate and multivariate (Cox model) analysis.

RESULTS:

58 patients (65%) developed chronic cholestasis after a median of 6 months (range, 3 to 132 months), and 37 (41.5%) developed complicated home parenteral nutrition-related liver disease after a median of 17 months (range, 2 to 155 months). Of these patients, 17 showed extensive fibrosis after 26 months (range, 2 to 148 months) and 5 had cirrhosis after 37 months (range, 26 to 77 months). The prevalence of complicated home parenteral nutrition-related liver disease was 26%+/-9% at 2 years and 50%+/-13% at 6 years. Six patients died of liver disease (22% of all deaths). In multivariate analysis, chronic cholestasis was significantly associated with a parenteral nutrition-independent risk for liver disease, a bowel remnant shorter than 50 cm in length, and a parenteral lipid intake of 1 g/kg of body weight per day or more (omega-6-rich long-chain triglycerides), whereas complicated home parenteral nutrition-related liver disease was significantly associated with chronic cholestasis and lipid parenteral intake of 1 g/kg per day or more.

CONCLUSION:

The prevalence of complicated home parenteral nutrition-related liver disease increased with longer duration of parenteral nutrition. This condition was one of the main causes of death in patients with permanent intestinal failure. Parenteral intake of omega-6-rich long-chain triglycerides lipid emulsion consisting of less than 1 g/kg per day is recommended in these patients.

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