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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999 Aug;8(8):683-92.

Distribution and concordance of N-acetyltransferase genotype and phenotype in an American population.

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School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55454, USA.


Polymorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) status varies widely between individuals and ethnic groups and has been associated with susceptibility to several cancers. Few studies have reported the distribution of NAT2 status for Caucasian-American populations or evaluated the concordance between methods of assessment for cancer cases and controls. In our study, distribution of NAT2 status was classified by genotype and phenotype measurements in PANCAN, a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer, and concordance between measurements was evaluated for 33 cases and 222 controls. Major genotypes and alleles among controls were *5B/*6A, *5B/*5B, *4/*6A, and *5B/*4. One putative new allele was found in a single individual. Genotypes and phenotypes were classified as rapid or slow, according to a bimodal model. Presence of the *4 (wild-type) allele defined a NAT2 genotype as rapid. The NAT2 phenotype was analyzed by the caffeine assay. Ratios of 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil to 1-methylxanthine were determined, and individuals with values of > or =0.66 were identified as having a rapid phenotype. In our population, 58.1 and 59.5% of control subjects were classified as slow acetylators by phenotype and genotype, respectively. Concordance of NAT2 genotype and phenotype classification was 97.8% in the bimodal model. A similar analysis was completed for a trimodal model. Concordance of genotype and phenotype was high in cases (90.9%) and similar to controls; genotyping alone provided an efficient, accurate method of analysis for acetylator status. A comparison with two previous reports revealed subtle differences in genotype and allele distribution but exhibited overall similarity with other Caucasian-American populations.

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