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Pathobiology. 1999;67(5-6):222-6.

Alternative versus classical activation of macrophages.

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Klinik und Poliklinik für Dermatologie, Universitätsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.


In parallel to the Th1/Th2 paradigm, antigen-presenting cells (APC) are divided into classically activated APC (dendritic cells/effector macrophages) and alternatively activated APC (IL-4-induced, alternatively activated macrophages/IL-10-induced, immature dendritic cells). Alternatively activated APC share a special molecular repertoire including receptors of innate immunity with broad specificity for foreign antigen and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1Ra and alternative macrophage activation-associated CC-chemokine-1. Alternatively activated APC mediated tolerance and downregulated inflammation. Abuse of alternatively activated APC in support of infectious susceptibility or tumor immune escape is counteracted by the classical pathway. Thus, classically and alternatively activated APC secure the balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune reactions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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