Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Rev Neurosci. 2000;11(2-3):147-58.

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the human brain in schizophrenia.

Author information

Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA.


In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) has been utilized by neuroimaging laboratories in recent years to reliably measure compounds such as N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and to a lesser extent glutamate and glutamine in the human brain. To date, the most consistently replicated findings in schizophrenia are reduced NAA measures in the hippocampal regions. Since NAA is thought to be a neuronal/axonal marker and a measure of neuronal/axonal integrity, hippocampal NAA reductions have been interpreted as strong evidence for neuronal/axonal loss or dysfunction in this brain region. The evidence for neuronal loss or dysfunction based on NAA is less consistent for the frontal cortex and white matter, temporal cortex, basal ganglia, cingulate region, and thalamus in schizophrenia. Furthermore, there are no consistently replicated findings for choline or creatine alterations in any of the brain regions examined in schizophrenia. Finally, significant technical difficulties make reliable measurement of glutamine and glutamate problematic at the present time.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center