Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Nov-Dec;93(6):565-70.

Insecticide-treated materials for malaria control in Latin America: to use or not to use?

Author information

  • 1Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK.


Studies on the protective efficacy of insecticide-treated materials (ITMs) in Plasmodium vivax endemic areas of Latin America have not yielded sufficient evidence for recommendation of their extensive use in the region. Therefore 2 randomized community trials have been conducted on the Pacific Coast of Nicaragua which analysed the minimum coverage of ITMs needed to be effective against malaria. For the characterization of the study area, epidemiological and entomological baseline surveys and household interview surveys were undertaken. Thereafter the communities were paired (6 pairs in the 1st year and 13 pairs in the 2nd year) according to 4-monthly reported malaria incidence rates, population size and bednet coverage, and then randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. In the intervention groups, bednets were impregnated with lambdacyhalothrin; in the control groups, people received general health education. Anopheles albimanus was found to be the main vector with marked indoor biting behaviour late in the evening. P. vivax (99%) clearly outweighed P. falciparum (1%) with low parasite prevalence rates in the asymptomatic general population (8%) and low parasite densities. The protective efficacy of ITMs varied according to the coverage achieved: protective efficacy was 68% in communities with an average ITM coverage of 50% (10 pairs); 31% in communities with an ITM coverage of 16-30% (4 pairs); and no protective efficacy in communities with ITM coverage below 16% (5 pairs). The comparison with other P. vivax endemic areas in Latin America showed that the vector's late biting behaviour and the indoor preference (where ITMs have a repellent effect) probably led to the favourable results in the study. In malaria endemic areas of Latin America, where P. vivax is predominant, studies on vector behaviour should be conducted in order to predict the impact of ITMs on malaria transmission.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center