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Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000 Mar;25(5):483-7.

Melphalan plus total body irradiation (MEL-TBI) or cyclophosphamide (MEL-CY) as a conditioning regimen with second autotransplant in responding patients with myeloma is inferior compared to historical controls receiving tandem transplants with melphalan alone.

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Myeloma and Transplantation Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.


The role of more intense conditioning for second transplant was evaluated in myeloma patients achieving at least partial remission (PR) after first transplant with melphalan at 200 mg/m2. Forty-three patients received more intensive conditioning for the second transplant. Nineteen patients received cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg along with melphalan 200 g/m2 (MEL-CY; group 1) while 24 patients received total body irradiation (1125 cGy) in conjunction with melphalan 140 mg/m2 (MEL-TBI; group 2). Forty-three matched control patients were identified from 450 patients receiving melphalan alone for second transplant (MEL200; group 3). Engraftment and toxicities were comparable among the groups with the exception of increased treatment-related mortality of 8% in group 2 compared to none in groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.07). Despite identical CR rates of 74, 71 and 70%, respectively, in groups 1, 2 and 3 (P = 1.0), event-free survival (median: 27, 15 and 61; P < 0.0001) and overall survival (median: 39, 25 and 76 months; P = 0.003) were significantly decreased in patients receiving more intensive conditioning (groups 1 and 2). Lymphocyte recovery, evaluated as a surrogate for immune recovery, was inferior in more intensively treated patients (groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3). Our findings suggest that more intense conditioning appears to have no benefit in patients responding to their first cycle of high-dose therapy and may even be detrimental in this setting. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 483-487.

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