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Am J Med Genet. 2000 Feb 28;90(5):407-22.

Fronto-otopalatodigital osteodysplasia: clinical evidence for a single entity encompassing Melnick-Needles syndrome, otopalatodigital syndrome types 1 and 2, and frontometaphyseal dysplasia.

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  • 1Wallonia Center for Human Genetics, Li├Ęge University, Belgium.


Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 is an X-linked disorder with minimal expression in carrier females and comprises typical facial anomalies and a generalized bone dysplasia with osteodysplastic changes, brachydactyly, and impaired survival. Recently several other severe malformations were reported in the condition. Melnick-Needles syndrome is an X-linked dominant disorder. Affected males are usually sporadic cases. The exceptional males born to symptomatic women present with a lethal disorder comprising generalized osteodysplasia, deficiency of the first ray, and facial anomalies strikingly similar to those of otopalatodigital syndrome type 2. We report here on three boys with classical, severe, and lethal otopalatodigital type 2 syndrome, and three boys with severe (lethal) Melnick-Needles syndrome, born to affected mothers. We suggest that otopalatodigital type 1 and 2, Melnick-Needles syndrome and frontometaphyseal dysplasia, sharing many clinical manifestations and a similar mode of inheritance, are variants of the same condition: fronto-otopalatodigital osteodysplasia. The relationships to similar syndromes (i.e., Saint-Martin-Gardner-Morrisson syndrome, serpentine fibula syndrome, atelosteogenesis type 3, boomerang dysplasia, and Yunis-Varon syndrome) are discussed.

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