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Int J Cancer. 2000 Feb 15;85(4):486-91.

Human papillomavirus infection and invasive cervical cancer in Paraguay.

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Laboratorio de Anatomia Patologica y Citologia, Asunción, Paraguay.


HPV types 16 and 18 have been categorized as human carcinogens based on their strong associations with cervical cancer in previous case-control studies. Recent IARC studies in the Philippines, Thailand and Morocco show strong associations between invasive cervical cancer and less common HPV types, including HPV 31, 33, 45, 51, 52 and 58. We present results of a further IARC case-control study conducted in Asunción, Paraguay, to examine the association between specific HPV types and invasive cervical cancer as well as risk factors other than HPV. One-hundred thirteen incident histologically confirmed invasive cervical cancer cases and 91 age-matched hospital controls were recruited. A standardized questionnaire was administered to investigate known and suspected risk factors for cervical cancer. For HPV status determination, cervical biopsy specimens from case subjects and exfoliated cervical cells from control subjects were obtained. HPV DNA was ascertained using a GP5+/6+ PCR-based assay capable of detecting more than 33 HPV types. Overall HPV prevalence was 97% in the cervical cancer cases and 20% in the control subjects. As a single infection, HPV 16 was the predominant type with a prevalence of 48% among case subjects and 5.5% among control subjects. Significant associations with the risk of cervical cancer were detected as follows: any HPV type (OR = 114; 95% CI: 36-361); HPV 16 (OR = 910); HPV 18 (infinite OR); HPV 31 (OR = 110); HPV 33 (OR = 261); HPV 45 (OR = 129); and HPV 58 (OR = 36). In the multivariate model, risk factors other than HPV significantly associated with cervical cancer risk were a higher number of lifetime sexual partners, lower educational status and never having had a Pap smear. Strong associations were found between invasive cervical cancer and specific HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45 and 58.

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