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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;54(1):81-6.

Ten-year trends in vitamin and mineral intake from fortified food in German children and adolescents.

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Research Institute of Child Nutrition (FKE), Dortmund, Germany.



We investigated time trends in consumption patterns, and energy and nutrient intakes (protein, fat, carbohydrates, added sugars, vitamins A, E, C, B1, B2 and B6, niacin, folate, calcium and iron) from fortified food in children and adolescents between 1987 and 1996 in Germany.


Mixed longitudinal survey (DONALD study) with 3 d weighed dietary records (n=2062 from 594 subjects), one subject per family per year chosen by random.


Dortmund (Western Germany) district cohort.


285 males, 309 females; mean age 6 y (2-13 y).


Almost all children and adolescents consumed fortified food irrespective of the year studied. With the exception of vitamin E, significant time trends in the proportions of nutrient intakes from fortification were observed. The fortification of food with vitamins A, C, B1, B2 and B6 and niacin raised the already adequate intakes from non-fortified food (100% to 150% of reference intake values) by 20-50%. The fortification of food with vitamin E and folate raised the low intakes from non-fortified food (about 50% of reference intake values) to about 80% (folate) and 100% (vitamin E) of the references. Fortification of food with calcium and iron was not significant (<10%), but while total intake of calcium was adequate, total intake of iron remained critical.


Since the nutrient intake of the population of children and adolescents studied is adequate with respect to vitamins A, C, B1, B2 and B6, niacin and calcium, fortification seems inefficient, while fortification of food with vitamin E and folate, but not iron, improves an inadequate intake.


The DONALD study is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Health and the North-Rhine-Westphalian Ministry of Science and Research. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 81-86

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